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Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Level 6 Level 7 Level 8 Literacy A Literacy B

ESL Literacy B
Legend:
Italics
taken directly from the Model Standards
{item or items}
specific vocabulary to be taught
N
objective to be introduced
C
objective to be continued
R
objective to be reviewed
(receptive only)
teacher uses structure/vocabulary without grammatical explanation and does not expect students to produce


Student Profile at Entry

Students entering the ESL Literacy B level:

*

May be semi-literate in native language.
*
May be literate in non-Roman-alphabet language.
*
Typically have 0-4 years of formal education.
*
Cannot write comprehensible sentences in English.
*
Have some ability to read English words and sentences, but may lack basic reading comprehension skills.

Students at this level have some listening and speaking skills in English, but are generally not fluent. They have some alphabet skills, but cannot use a dictionary. They may have difficulty following directions for written work. Lack of experience in manipulating language makes it very difficult for them to do even the simplest grammar exercises.

Approach

Some activities resemble those of a Beginning Low 1 or 2 class. However, the following reinforce and build on ESL Literacy A approaches.

*

Students are given considerably more time and assistance to complete work
*
Critical thinking skills are taught explicitly.
*
Instructions are broken down into very simple steps.
*
Basic education is incorporated into various activities
*
Reading activities, including both decoding and comprehension, are given more class time.
*
Writing activities (self-expression, spelling and handwriting) receive more emphasis.
*
Pre-grammar skills are emphasized without formal grammar presentations.

Course Content

Topics

Course content is relevant to students' lives and focuses on general topics and on literacy.

Topics (Required)

 
Alphabet
Telephone
Numbers
Daily Activities
Family
Employment
Calendar
Money
Time
Shopping
Rights and responsibilities
Food
Transportation
Housing
Weather

Colors

Environment

Health

Selection of other general topics should be based on a needs assessment and may include but are not limited to:

Culture

Basic nonverbal social customs, such as shaking hands and waving, are taught by example. Cultural aspects, such as forms of address (Mr., Mrs., Miss), are taught by modeling.

Language Functions

On exit, students will be able use English for:

*

Factual information: identify, demonstrate
*
Social and interpersonal relations : greet, show gratitude, express state of being
*
Suasion: caution

Language Skills

Listening: On exit, students will be able to:

*

Demonstrate comprehension of oral instructions for class assignments through physical action.
*
Distinguish among consonant and vowel sounds, including digraphs, blends and diphthongs.
*
Demonstrate comprehension of simple words in context of common everyday situations.
*
Demonstrate understanding of simple face-to-face conversations using previously learned material.
*
Respond to short emergency warnings.
*
Demonstrate comprehension of basic personal questions with one-word or short responses.
*
Distinguish singular from plural in common regular and irregular nouns.
*
Use simple contextual clues such as time reference words to determine meaning.
*
Distinguish Wh-question (information) words through appropriate responses.
*
Distinguish between Wh-questions (information) and Yes/ No questions through appropriate responses.
*
Recognize that stress and pitch carry meaning (question intonation).
*
Demonstrate understanding of simple, explicit information by appropriate responses.

Speaking: On exit, students will be able to:

*

State basic needs using previously learned words and phrases.
*
Answer simple questions with "yes", "no", one-word or short-phrase responses.
*
Ask simple questions.
*
Repeat a number or word(s) for confirmation or clarification.
*
Repeat/generate phrases and sentences similar to a model with some degree of accuracy.
*
State a lack of understanding.
*
Recite alphabet by rote.

Reading: On exit, students will be able to:

*

Relate phonological sounds to letters and clusters of letters(sound/symbol correspondence).
*
Identify upper and lower case letters in words using manuscript alphabet (cursive optional).
*
Use graphophonemic cues to sound out words.
*
Find page numbers and title.
*
Recognize basic abbreviations: {Mr., Apt., St.}
*
Recognize basic sight words and symbols.
*
Recognize verb endings: {-s}, {-ed}, -{ing}.
*
Recognize contractions.
*
Interpret sentences and simple paragraphs using vocabulary and structures previously learned.
*
Identify function of capitalization and end punctuation.
*
Demonstrate comprehension of simple written directions: {circle, read, true/false}
*
Recognize details.
*
Classify information.
*
Recognize alphabetical order and find words in alphabetical list.
*
Read silently.
*
Read aloud with correct sentence boundaries.
*
Predict context of a reading using pictures, captions, title and other contextual information.

Writing: On exit, students will be able to:

*

Form punctuation marks, numerals and upper and lower case manuscript letters legibly from memory.
*
Sign name in cursive.
*
Copy familiar words, phrases, and high-frequency expressions from learned material.
*
Fill out simple personal information forms.
*
Use lined paper correctly.
*
Write name and date in upper right hand corner of paper.
*
Categorize simple information in writing
*
Write simple sentences based on previously learned vocabulary and structures.
*
Write 25 basic sight words from memory.
*
Copy structures and vocabulary taught at this level with proper spelling, punctuation and capitalization.
*
Take cloze and spelling dictations.
*
Write 6 basic contractions from memory.
*
Write words in alphabetical order by first letter only.

Classroom Orientation Skills: On exit, students will be able to:

*

Demonstrate initiative and independent learning behavior.
*
Begin in-class assignments in a timely manner.
*
Evaluate own learning needs.
*
Use classroom etiquette.
*
Work independently during assessment times.
*
Work in pairs or groups.
*
Follow in-class emergency procedures for earthquakes and fires.
*
Demonstrate ability to attend class regularly and arrive on time.
*
Demonstrate concentration on assigned task for extended periods.

Math Skills: On exit, students will be able to:

*

Arrange numerals in order (up to 1000).
*
Read Arabic numerals (up to 1000).
*
Write numbers from dictation (up to 1000).
*
Convert written number words into Arabic numerals.
*
Read and write dollars and cents using $ and cents.
*
Add and subtract whole numbers with regrouping (borrowing and carrying).
*
Recognize place value and tell whether two numbers are same or different up to 1000.
*
Identify greater of two numbers.
*
Determine if result of calculation is reasonable.
*
Measure using whole inches and feet.
*
Read whole number weight scales.
*
Recognize basic units of money, time, and linear and weight measurement.
*
Scan reading material for numerical information.

Language Forms

At this level, students begin to be able to group words by grammatical functions, spelling patterns, or other inductively determined similarities. There is still no emphasis on grammar terminology. Instead, emphasis is on continued, controlled exposure to language forms introduced in ESL Literacy A.

In addition to the following language awareness objectives, ESL Literacy B students are exposed inductively to the language forms of Beginning Low 1.

On exit students will be able to demonstrate:

Language Awareness

*

Categorize language elements informally with emphasis on grouping similar forms rather than labeling.
*
words vs. letters, sentences
*
sentences vs. lines of print
*
statements vs. questions
*
parts of speech (nouns, verbs, adjectives, articles)
*
plural vs. singular
*
punctuation vs. letter
*
proper nouns vs. common
*
familiar verb forms and time expressions relating to present vs. future vs. past (e.g., went, last night)
*
wh- words (as category)
*
Demonstrate knowledge of very basic grammar terminology
*
letter, vowel, not a vowel
*
question, not a question
*
`name' reference to capitalization)
*
now, past
*
-ing, -ed, -s (recognition)
*
opposite (matching antonyms)
*
Compare and contrast structures with those in native language, if appropriate
*
Analyze obviously incorrect sentences or language forms (e.g., "3 boy")

Language Forms

On exit, students will be able to use the following structures:

Sentence Types

N

Simple statements, affirmative and negative
N
*with be: It's a pen. It's not a pen.
N
*with action verbs: He speaks English. He doesn't speak English.
N
Yes/No, or, and wh-questions and answers
N
Yes/No questions
N
*with be, long and short answers: Is it a pen ? Yes, it's a pen. Yes, it is. No, it isn't a pen. No, it isn't.
N
*with action verbs, long and short answers: Does he speak English? Yes, he speaks English. Yes, he does. No, he doesn't speak English. No, he doesn't.
N
*with or (choice): Do you want coffee or tea?
N
Wh- questions: who, what, when, where, why
N
*How are you? How much is it?
N
{whose}, {how much} + noncount noun, {how many} + count noun
N
Imperatives with please: Please open the door

Verbs

N

Simple present: He studies every day. She is tired.
N
Common two-word verbs: get up, put on
N
Common verbs followed by infinitives : like to, want to, forget to
N
Subject-verb agreement: He walks to school.
N
Contractions, affirmative and negative: isn't, aren't, I'm not
N
Simple past:
N
*with be: It was foggy yesterday.
N
*with common regular verbs
N
*with common irregular verbs
N
Present continuous: He is studying now.
N
Modals:
N
*can: He can study this evening. Can you ____ ?
N
*{May I help you?} and {Let's}

Nouns

N

Regular, singular and plural
N
Common irregular plurals: child/children, woman/women
N
Proper nouns: Bob, Russia
N
Noncountable : food, tea

Pronouns

N

Subject: {I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they}
N
Object : {me, you, him, her, it, us , you, them}
N
Demonstrative: {this, that, these, those}: This is my book.
N
Indefinite as subject and object : one, some, any, everyone, someone, anyone, no one
N
It as subject with weather and time: It is Tuesday.

Adjectives

N

Articles: {a, an, the}
N
Adjective-before-noun word order: a red dress
N
Possessive: {my, your, his, her, its, our, their}
N
Demonstrative: {this, that, these, those} This book is mine.
N
Quantifiers : some/any much/many/a lot of/a little/a few

Adverbs and Adverbials

N

Time: now, yesterday, today, tomorrow, every day
N
Adverbials of chronological order: {next month, last month, in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening, at noon, at night, before class, after class}
N
Place: {here, there}
N
Frequency: {always, sometimes, never, usually, often}
N
{not}
N
Intensifiers: {very}

Prepositions

N

{to, in, on, at, under, above, next to, from, between}

Conjunctions

N

Connecting words {and, or} with short phrases: She has a pen and a book. Use a pen or a pencil.

Evaluation

Please see web pages under Assessment.