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Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Level 6 Level 7 Level 8 Literacy A Literacy B

ESL Literacy A
Legend:
Italics
taken directly from the Model Standards
{item or items}
specific vocabulary to be taught
N
objective to be introduced
C
objective to be continued
R
objective to be reviewed
(receptive only)
teacher uses structure/vocabulary without grammatical explanation and does not expect students to produce

Student Profile at Entry

Students who enter this level cannot read or write in English. They may have limited oral proficiency in English. They may or may not read and write in their primary language, a lack that may be the result of:

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Little or no formal educational experience in their native countries
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Absence of written forms of their primary languages
*
Learning disabilities
In addition, students entering this level:

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May have no classroom experience.
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Are pre-literate, non-literate or semi-literate in their native language or may be fairly literate in a non-Roman alphabet language.

Students with fewer than 5 or 6 years of education in their native country lack basic educational knowledge and skills. They do not think about language or analyze their own thought processes; therefore, they may experience difficulty in applying the cognitive skills they already possess to unfamiliar classroom tasks. Some may also lack self-esteem, confidence and strategies for learning a second language. Because of their lack of school experience, they may appear initially fearful and remain disoriented for some time. They may need extra help adjusting to student life and classroom behavior.

Approach

Emphasis is on developing students' ability to recognize and form letters and to interpret and write words within the context of listening and understanding messages in their new language. At this level there is no focus on grammatical accuracy.

Some of the approaches and activities used in this level are similar to those used in Beginning Low 1, especially activities that increase motivation by making the classroom experience more enjoyable, meaningful and relevant to the students' needs. Meaning-based approaches, for example, motivate by emphasizing self-expression and communicative aspects of language even at this low level. Task-based approaches permit the integration of skills through interesting student projects. Cooperative learning enables students to play the role of teacher as well as learner and to provide valuable assistance to one another. When a learning lab is available, it offers choices of activities to students, including kinesthetic activities to accommodate other learning styles. Other student-centered approaches, such as the Language Experience Approach, problem-solving or Freirean approaches and the collection and publication of student work have been specifically developed for use in literacy instruction. The atmosphere in a literacy class should foster an acceptance of human differences.

Development of critical thinking skills is given explicit attention in the literacy curriculum. Skills leading to an awareness of the thinking process (metacognitive skills) and their application to language learning are introduced.

Use of the native language is one way in which an ESL literacy class differs from a regular ESL class. Students use their native language among themselves for peer teaching, to help each other and sometimes to translate for the teacher. Many ESL literacy skills transfer to the native language, even when that language is not roman alphabet based. Therefore, ESL literacy skills also build on the student's native language skills. When the teacher and the students share a common language, the instructor may use the native language for explanations, to compare and contrast English with the native language, to present basic education topics that are not ESL-specific, or to teach specific literacy skills, when it is appropriate to do so. In addition, guest speakers and counselors can present important information to the class in the native language.

The following are some literacy techniques which may differ from the regular ESL program:

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Recycle content constantly to foster retention.
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Allow ample time for students to become oriented to new tasks or material
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Teach to middle and bottom of the class
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Always present new vocabulary orally first.
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Model cognitive skills by thinking out loud.
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Expose students to traditional Western linear ways of thinking.
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Encourage students to share learning strategies with the class.
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Provide activities designed to foster self-esteem (for example provide opportunities for students to display other talents such as dancing or embroidery).
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Provide many activities to promote metacognitive and pre-grammar skills, such as categorization activities.
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Have non-literate students begin writing with whole arm (gross motor before fine motor).
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Integrate basic social studies, science, and math into ESL curriculum as necessary (for students with limited formal education).
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Include math applications in activities whenever possible.
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Minimize corrections to provide a nurturing environment.
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Incorporate art and music, providing whole brain activities and opportunities for fine motor development.

Course Content

Topics

Course content is relevant to students' lives and focuses on general topics and on literacy.

Topics (Required)
 
Alphabet
Telephone
Numbers
Daily Activities
Family
Employment
Calendar
Money
Time
Shopping
Rights and responsibilities
Food
Transportation
Housing
Weather

Colors

Environment

Health

Selection of other general topics should be based on a needs assessment and may include but are not limited to:

Culture

Basic nonverbal social customs, such as shaking hands and waving, are taught by example. Cultural aspects, such as forms of address (Mr., Mrs., Miss), are taught by modeling.

Language Functions

On exit, students will be able to use English for:

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Factual information: identify, demonstrate
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Social and interpersonal relations : greet, show gratitude, express state of being
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Suasion: caution

Language Skills

Listening: On exit, students will be able to:

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Demonstrate understanding of simple words, phrases, and questions drawn from familiar material such as personal information or the immediate physical setting.
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Demonstrate understanding of high-frequency commands and expressions of courtesy.
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Recognize directional words such as up/down, left/right, front/back, top/bottom.
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Follow oral classroom instructions {repeat, copy, circle}
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Recognize sound/symbol correspondences.
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Distinguish singular from plural in common regular nouns.
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Respond appropriately to short emergency warnings.
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Recognize that stress and pitch carry meaning (question intonation).

Speaking: On exit, students will be able to:

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Express basic needs with simple words or phrases drawn from learned material.
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Repeat words and phrases for clarification and to improve pronunciation.
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Answer simple questions with yes, no or one-word response.
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Recite letters of alphabet in order with written cues if needed.
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Ask simple questions.
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Repeat a number or word(s) for clarification.
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State lack of understanding.

Reading: On exit, students will be able to:

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Discriminate between shapes and letters and both upper- and lower-case letters.
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Demonstrate eye movements from top to bottom and left to right.
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Discriminate among numerals.
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Relate phonological sounds to letters.
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Recognize signs with one word or symbol (restroom signs, for example)
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Find page number.
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Imitate the reading of a sentence just learned orally after modeling.
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Skim for familiar information.

Writing: On exit, students will be able to:

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Trace shapes and letters, following guide arrows or other directions.
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Copy letters of the alphabet and numerals.
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Copy basic information about personal identification (name, phone number, address) on a form.
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Copy from a chalkboard a list of words previously produced orally.
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Write first and last name from memory.
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Write letters and numbers from dictation.
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Use lined paper correctly.
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Sign or initial attendance lists.
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Use correct orientation on page {top/bottom}.
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Write a few, short, familiar vocabulary words correctly.
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Demonstrate basic comprehension of writing as a tool for self- expression.
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Encode consonant sounds in beginning, medial and final positions from dictation.
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Form punctuation marks correctly.
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Space between words

Math Skills: On exit, students will be able to:

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Match given numeral to number of objects (up to 100).
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Demonstrate understanding of zero concept.
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Arrange numerals in order (up to 100).
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Recognize place value in 2-digit numbers (12 vs. 21).
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Identify which of two numbers is greater.
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Read Arabic numerals (up to 100).
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Write numbers from 1 to 100.
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Write numbers from dictation (up to 100).
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Convert numbers written in words into Arabic numerals.
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Read and write dollars and cents, using $ and cents.
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Add and subtract whole numbers, without regrouping (borrowing or carrying).
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Measure whole inches and feet.
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Read whole number weight scales.
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Recognize basic units of money, time, and linear and weight measurement.

Classroom Orientation Skills: On exit, students will be able to:

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Use classroom etiquette.
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Work independently during assessment times.
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Work in pairs or groups.
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Follow in-class emergency procedures for earthquakes and fires.
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Demonstrate ability to attend class regularly and arrive on time.
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Demonstrate concentration on assigned task for extended periods.

Language Forms

At the ESL Literacy A level, the concept that language is composed of grammatical structures and forms is completely new to students. Emphasis is on vocabulary and controlled exposure to language forms to develop an awareness of language patterns.

On exit, students will be able to demonstrate understanding of the following:

Language Awareness

* Distinguish language elements

* Letters vs. numbers
* Letters vs. words
* Letters vs. punctuation marks
* Singular vs. plural
* Function of nouns vs. function of verbs
* Question vs. answer
* Compare and contrast native language patterns with English

Sentence Types

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Respond to simple commands: Open, Close, Stand, Sit
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Ask questions with words and phrases: "Name?"
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Imperative with please
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Simple present statements and questions
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with be: affirmative and negative
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with contractions: I'm, he's, it's, etc.
*
with {This is/That is}
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with action verbs: affirmative and negative (receptive only)
*
Present continuous (receptive only)

Nouns

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Common regular nouns: singular and plural
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Common irregular plurals (receptive only)
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Proper names: Mrs. Trump, Sue, John

Pronouns

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Subject pronouns: {I, he, she, you} (optional {we, they})
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Object pronouns: {me, you} (receptive only)

Adjectives

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Common adjectives: blue, happy, beautiful
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Adjective before noun word order
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Possessive adjectives
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Articles {a, the}
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Quantifiers: {many, a lot, a little}

Adverbs

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Time: {now, yesterday, today, tomorrow, next year, every day}
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Place: {here, there}

Conjunctions

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{and, or}connecting words and phrases.

Prepositions

* to, at, in, on, with, from, under} (receptive only)

Evaluation

Please see web pages under Assessment.